Monitoring Forests in **Space** and **Time** Using Close-Range Sensing

**time**dimension and its possibilities for forest characterization. Expand abstract.

**time**spans have been rather short, less than 10 years. In addition, data from only two

**time**points have been used in many of the studies, which has further been limiting the capability of understanding dynamics related to forest growth. In general, method development and quantification of changes have been the main interests so far regardless of the driver of change. This shows that the close-range remote sensing community has just started to explore the

**time**dimension and its possibilities for forest characterization.

4/10 relevant

Preprints.org

Gravity dual of Navier-Stokes equation of an uniformly rotating fluid through parallel transport

**space**-

**time**rotation parameters encode information pertaining to inertial effects in the corresponding uniformly rotating fluid dual. Expand abstract.

**space**-

**time**rotation parameters encode information pertaining to inertial effects in the corresponding uniformly rotating fluid dual.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

On cohesive almost zero-dimensional **spaces**

**space**is zero-dimensional and that each cohesive almost zero-dimensional

**space**is nowhere rational. To show these results are sharp, we construct a rim-discrete connected set with an explosion point. We also show every cohesive almost zero-dimensional subspace of $($Cantor set$)$$\times\mathbb R$ is nowhere dense.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Asymptotics of continuous-**time** discrete state **space** branching processes
for large initial state

**time**branching processes with discrete state

**space**are provided as the initial state tends to infinity. Expand abstract.

**time**branching processes with discrete state

**space**are provided as the initial state tends to infinity. Depending on the finiteness or non-finiteness of the mean and/or the variance of the offspring distribution, the limits are in general

**time**-inhomogeneous Gaussian processes,

**time**-inhomogeneous generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type processes or continuous-state branching processes. We also provide transfer results showing how specific asymptotic relations for the probability generating function of the offspring distribution carry over to those of the one-dimensional distributions of the branching process.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

DISIMb(2) Local Relativistic Symmetry and Finslerian Extension of the Theory of Relativity

**spaces**endowed with local relativistic symmetry. Expand abstract.

**space**-

**time**can be not only in an amorphous state which is described by Riemann geometry but also in ordered, i.e. crystalline states which are described by Finsler geometry. Transitions between various metric states of

**space**-

**time**have the meaning of phase transitions in its geometric structure. These transitions together with the evolution of each of the possible metric states make up the general picture of

**space**-

**time**manifold dynamics. It is shown that there are only two types of curved Finslerian

**spaces**endowed with local relativistic symmetry. However the metric of only one of them satisfies the correspondence principle with Riemannian metric of the general theory of relativity and therefore underlies viable Finslerian extension of the GR. Since the existing purely geometric approaches to a Finslerian generalization of Einstein's equations do not allow one to obtain such generalized equations which would provide a local relativistic symmetry of their solutions, special attention is paid to the property of the specific invariance of viable Finslerian metric under local conformal transformations of those fields on which it explicitly depends. It is this property that makes it possible to use the well-known methods of conventional field theory and thereby to circumvent the above-mentioned difficulties arising within the framework of purely geometric approaches to a Finslerian generalization of Einstein's equations.

7/10 relevant

arXiv

C4 **Space**-Time.. A Window to New Physics?

**space**-

**time**to a 4-d complex

**space**-time, can serve us to describe geometrically electromagnetism and nuclear fields and unify it with gravity, in a different way that Kaluza-Klein theories do. Specifically, the electromagnetic field $A_\mu$, is included in the free geodesic equation of $C^4$. By embedding our usual 4-d real

**space**-

**time**in the symplectic 8-d real

**space**-

**time**(symplectic $R^8$ is algebraically isomorphic to $C^4$), we derive the usual geodesic equation of a charged particle in gravitational field, plus new information which is interpreted. Afterwards, we formulate and explore the extended special relativity and extended general relativity an $C^4$ or$R^8$. After embedding our usual 4-d

**space**-

**time**in $R^8$, two new phenomena rise naturally, that are interpreted as "dark matter" and "dark energy". A new cosmological model is presented, while the geometrical terms associated with "dark matter" and "dark energy" are investigated. Similarities, patterns and differences between "dark matter", "dark energy", ordinary matter and radiation are presented, where "dark energy" is a dynamic entity and "dark matter" reveal itself as a "mediator" betwen ordinary matter and "dark energy". Moreover, "dark matter" is deeply connected with "dark energy". Furthermore, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the extended

**space**-time, is transformed naturally as an extended Klein-Gordon equation, in order to get in contact with quantum theories. By solving the Klein-Gordon equation analytically, we derive an eigenvalue for Higg's boson mass value at 125,173945 $Gev/c^{2}$. The extended Klein-Gordon equation, also connects Higg's boson (or vacuum) with Cosmology, due to the existence of our second "time" T (cosmological time), which serve us to connect quantum theories with Cosmology. Afterwards, in the general case, we explore the symmetries of the curved Hamilton-Jacobi equation locally, in order to investigate the consequences of a $C^4$

**space**-

**time**in Standard Model. An extension to Standard Model is revealed, especially in the sector of strong nuclear field. The Stiefel manifold $SU(4)/SU(2)$ seems capable not only to describe the strong nuclear field but give us,as well, enough room to explore in the future, the possibility to explain quark confinment. Our extension, flavors firstly the unification of nuclear fields and afterwards the unification of nuclear fields with electromagnetic field. The desired grand unification, is achieved locally, through the symmetry group $GL(4,C)\simeq SO(4,4)\cap U(4)$ and we present a potential mechanism to reduce the existing particle numbers to just six. Afterwards,23 present the extended Dirac equation in $C^4$

**space**-

**time**(Majorana-Weyl representation) plus a preliminary attempt to introduce a pure geometric structure for fermions. Finally, we consider a new geometric structure through n-linear forms in order to give geometric explanation for quantisation

10/10 relevant

Preprints.org

Estimating maximum sustainable yield of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) off Tohoku Japan via a state-**space** assessment model with **time**-varying natural mortality

**times**depending on the instar growth stages from 1997 to 2018. Expand abstract.

**space**stock assessment model (JASAM) to estimate the MSY of the snow crab off Tohoku, Japan, considering interannual variations in M and p. The multi model inference revealed that M increased from 0.2 in 1997 to 0.59 in 2018, although it was not different among the instars, sex, nor terminal molt of crabs. The parameter p also increased by 1.34 to 2.46

**times**depending on the instar growth stages from 1997 to 2018. We estimated the MSYs in three scenarios, which drastically changed if M and p were set as they were in the past or at the current values estimated from this study. This result indicated that the MSY of snow crab would also be

**time**varying based on their

**time**varying biological characteristics.

4/10 relevant

bioRxiv

A Novel Massive MIMO Beam Domain Channel Model

**space**,

**time**, and frequency correlation properties for two models. Expand abstract.

**space**-

**time**non-stationarity is also modeled in the novel BDCM. Moreover, the comparison of computational complexity for both models is studied. Based on the numerical analysis, comparison of cluster-level statistical properties between the proposed BDCM and existing GBSM has shown that there exists little difference in the space, time, and frequency correlation properties for two models. Also, based on the simulation, coherence bandwidths of the two models in different scenarios are almost the same. The computational complexity of the novel BDCM is much lower than the existing GBSM. It can be observed that the proposed novel BDCM has similar statistical properties to the existing GBSM at the clusterlevel. The proposed BDCM has less complexity and is therefore more convenient for information theory and signal processing research than the conventional GBSMs.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Quenched local limit theorem for random walks among **time**-dependent
ergodic degenerate weights

**space**-

**time**shifts and a moment condition. As a key analytic ingredient we show H\"older continuity estimates for solutions to the heat equation for discrete finite difference operators in divergence form with

**time**-dependent degenerate weights. The proof is based on De Giorgi's iteration technique. In addition, we also derive a quenched local central limit theorem for the static random conductance model on a class of random graphs with degenerate ergodic weights.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Mass inflation and the $C^2$-inextendibility of spherically symmetric charged scalar field dynamical black holes

**time**-like infinity $\mathcal{CH}_{i^+}$, - or $\mathcal{CH}_{i^+}$ is isometric to a Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m Cauchy horizon i.e. the radiation is zero on the Cauchy horizon. In both cases, we prove that $\mathcal{CH}_{i^+}$ is globally $C^2$-inextendible. To this end, we establish a novel classification of Cauchy horizons into three types: dynamical, static or mixed. As a side benefit, we prove that there exists a trapped neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon, thus the apparent horizon cannot cross the Cauchy horizon, a result of independent interest. Our main motivation is to prove the $C^2$ Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture for a realistic model of spherical collapse in which charged matter emulates the repulsive role of angular momentum. In our case, this model is the Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon system on

**space**-

**times**with one asymptotically flat end. As a consequence of the $C^2$-inextendibility of the Cauchy horizon, we prove the following statements, in spherical symmetry: - two-ended asymptotically flat

**space**-

**times**are $C^2$-future-inextendible i.e. $C^2$ Strong Cosmic Censorship is true for Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon, assuming the decay of the scalar field on the event horizon at the expected rate. - In the one-ended case, under the same assumptions, the Cauchy horizon emanating from

**time**-like infinity is $C^2$-inextendible. This result suppresses the main obstruction to $C^2$ Strong Cosmic Censorship in spherical collapse.

4/10 relevant

arXiv