Recycling of **energy** dissipated as heat accounts for high activity of Photosystem II

**energy**corresponding to 680 nm that is higher than in the case of

**low**-energy states in complexes involved in the harvesting of excitations driving PSII. Expand abstract.

**energy**powering almost entire life on Earth. The primary photovoltaic reaction in the PSII reaction centre requires

**energy**corresponding to 680 nm that is higher than in the case of

**low**-

**energy**states in complexes involved in the harvesting of excitations driving PSII. This promotes the process of out of the center

**energy**migration and thermal dissipation, reducing photosynthesis efficiency. Here we show that part of

**energy**dissipated as heat is used to drive PSII thanks to the thermally-driven up-conversion. We demonstrate the operation of this mechanism both in isolated antenna complex LHCII and in leaves. A mechanism is proposed, according to which the utilization of thermal

**energy**in the photosynthetic apparatus is possible owing to the formation of LHCII supramolecular structures, leading to the coupled

**energy**levels, corresponding to approx. 680 nm and 700 nm, capable of exchanging excitation

**energy**through the spontaneous relaxation and the thermal up-conversion.

6/10 relevant

bioRxiv

On the Expansion, Age, and Origin of the Puzzling Shell/Pulsar Wind Nebula G310.6-1.6

**low**-

**energy**explosion, is unlikely to produce such an event. Expand abstract.

**energy**E < 3 x 10^47 erg. Even a merger-induced collapse of a white dwarf to a neutron star, with a

**low**-

**energy**explosion, is unlikely to produce such an event. Other explanations seem equally unlikely.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Optical proof of work

**energy**savings, oPoW has the potential to improve network scalability, enable decentralized mining outside of

**low**electricity cost areas, and democratize issuance. Expand abstract.

**low**electricity costs, creating single points of failure. Although PoW security properties rely on imposing a trivially verifiable economic cost on miners, there is no fundamental reason for it to consist primarily of electricity cost. The authors propose a novel PoW algorithm, Optical Proof of Work (oPoW), to eliminate

**energy**as the primary cost of mining. Proposed algorithm imposes economic difficulty on the miners, however, the cost is concentrated in hardware (capital expense-CAPEX) rather than electricity (operating expenses-OPEX). The oPoW scheme involves minimal modifications to Hashcash-like PoW schemes, inheriting safety/security properties from such schemes. Rapid growth and improvement in silicon photonics over the last two decades has led to the commercialization of silicon photonic co-processors (integrated circuits that use photons instead of electrons to perform specialized computing tasks) for

**low**-

**energy**deep learning. oPoW is optimized for this technology such that miners are incentivized to use specialized,

**energy**-efficient photonics for computation. Beyond providing

**energy**savings, oPoW has the potential to improve network scalability, enable decentralized mining outside of

**low**electricity cost areas, and democratize issuance. Due to the CAPEX dominance of mining costs, oPoW hashrate will be significantly less sensitive to underlying coin price declines.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Pairing dynamics in **low** **energy** nuclear collisions

**low**

**energy**nuclear reactions. Expand abstract.

**low**temperatures and it is in particular important for the description of dynamics of

**low**

**energy**nuclear reactions. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is, to date, the only microscopic method which takes into account in a consistent way far from equilibrium dynamics of pairing field and single-particle degrees of freedom. The local version of TDDFT, so called TDSLDA, is particularly useful for the description of nuclear reactions and is well suited for leadership class computers of hybrid (CPU+GPU) architecture. The preliminary results obtained for collisions involving both medium-mass and heavy nuclei at the

**energies**around the Coulomb barrier are presented.

10/10 relevant

arXiv

Signatures of Complex Optical Response in Casimir Interactions of Type I and II Weyl Semimetals

**low**

**energy**linear dispersion and nontrivial topology due to symmetry conditions and stemming from separated energy cones. Expand abstract.

**low**

**energy**linear dispersion and nontrivial topology due to symmetry conditions and stemming from separated

**energy**cones. A comprehensive examination of all components of the bulk conductivity tensor as well as the surface conductivity due to the Fermi arc states in real and imaginary frequency domains is presented using the Kubo formalism for Weyl semimetals with different degree of tilting of their linear

**energy**cones. The Casimir

**energy**is calculated using a generalized Lifhsitz approach, for which electromagnetic boundary conditions for anisotropic materials were derived and used. We find that the Casimir interaction between Weyl semimetals is metallic-like and its magnitude and characteristic distance dependence can be modified by the degree of tilting and chemical potential. The nontrivial topology plays a secondary role in the Casimir interaction of these 3D materials and thermal fluctuations are expected to have similar effects as in metallic systems.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

All-order differential equations for one-loop closed-string integrals and modular graph forms

**low**-

**energy**expansions of closed-string integrals. Expand abstract.

**low**-

**energy**expansion of such torus integrals introduces infinite families of non-holomorphic modular forms known as modular graph forms. Our results generate homogeneous first- and second-order differential equations for arbitrary such modular graph forms and can be viewed as a step towards all-order

**low**-

**energy**expansions of closed-string integrals.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Two-spin entanglement induced by scattering of backscattering-free chiral electrons in a chern insulator

**energy**dispersion of the

**low**-

**energy**chiral states localized at the edge of the ribbon. Then, we employ the $T$-matrix Lippmann-Schwinger approach to explicitly show the robustness of chiral edge states against the impurity scattering. This backscattering-free process has an interesting property that the transmitted wave function acquires an additional phase factor. Although this additional phase factor does not affect quantum transport through the chiral channel it can carry quantum information. As an example of such quantum information transport, we investigate the entanglement of two magnetic impurities in a chern insulator through the dissipation-less scattering of chiral electrons.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

An atomically flat single-crystalline gold film thermometer on mica to
study **energy** (heat) exchange at the nano-scale

**lows**the simultaneous investigation of heat exchange and surface physics on the same sample. Expand abstract.

**energy**(heat) exchange in the fast growing family of micro- and nano-systems could provide valuable information about the chemistry and physics at the nano-scale. The possibility to have an atomically flat thermal probe represents an added value, because it provides the unique opportunity to perform Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) together with calorimetry. Here we report the fabrication, characterization, and calibration of atomically flat, single-crystalline gold film thermometers on mica substrate. Gold re-crystallization has been obtained, and successively the thermometer surface has been studied by

**Low**

**Energy**Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The thermometer calibration demonstrates a heat exchange coefficient of 2.1 x 10^(-7) W/K and a performance about 10 times better than previous sensors based on Si substrates. The experimental setup allows the simultaneous investigation of heat exchange and surface physics on the same sample.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Anomaly Matching in the Symmetry Broken Phase: Domain Walls, CPT, and the Smith Isomorphism

**low**-

**energy**theorems about certain couplings of the Goldstone modes. Expand abstract.

**low**-

**energy**limit, such as gapless modes or a topological field theory. If the symmetry is spontaneously broken, for the continuous case, the anomaly implies

**low**-

**energy**theorems about certain couplings of the Goldstone modes. Here we study the case of spontaneously broken discrete symmetries, such as Z/2 and T. Symmetry breaking leads to domain walls, and the physics of the domain walls is constrained by the anomaly. We investigate how the physics of the domain walls leads to a matching of the original discrete anomaly. We analyze the symmetry structure on the domain wall, which requires a careful analysis of some properties of the unbreakable CPT symmetry. We demonstrate the general results on some examples and we explain in detail the mod 4 periodic structure that arises in the Z/2 and T case. This gives a physical interpretation for the Smith isomorphism, which we also extend to more general abelian groups. We show that via symmetry breaking and the analysis of the physics on the wall, the computations of certain discrete anomalies are greatly simplified. Using these results we perform new consistency checks on the infrared phases of 2+1 dimensional QCD.

4/10 relevant

arXiv

Segregation and Preferential Sputtering of Cr in WCrY Smart Alloy

**low**

**energy**ion scattering detects almost no W on the surface. Expand abstract.

**low**

**energy**ion scattering of He+ ions with an

**energy**of 1 keV in the temperature range from room temperature to 1000 K. Due to the high surface sensitivity, these measurements probe only the composition of the outermost monolayer. The surface concentration of Cr increases slightly when the temperature of the sample is increased up to 700 K and exhibits a much stronger increase when the sample temperature is further raised. The segregation enthalpy for Cr is obtained from the Langmuir-McLean relation and amounts to 0.7 eV. The surface concentration of Y shows a similar behaviour to the Cr concentration. The temperature thresholds between slow and accelerated surface density increases for Cr and Y are nearly the same. At a temperature of 1000 K the

**low**

**energy**ion scattering detects almost no W on the surface. The modified surface composition due to the segregated species, i.e. the mixed Cr/Y layer, stays stable during cool-down of the sample. Preferential sputtering is investigated using ion bombardment of 250 eV D atoms, resulting in an increase of the W surface density at room temperature. This effect is counteracted at elevated temperatures where segregation replenishes the lighter elements on the surface and prevents the formation of an all-W surface layer. The flux of segregating Cr atoms towards the surface is evaluated from the equilibrium between sputter erosion and segregation.

5/10 relevant

arXiv